Time
https://edboost.org/index.php/
enTime Passage
https://edboost.org/index.php/node/489
<span>Time Passage</span>
<div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field-item"><div class="tex2jax_process"><p>Once students gain time sense, it's time to learn how to calculate time passage. (Most of the time passage worksheets below deal with time passage and analog clocks -- they may be too much for students who really struggle with analog clocks. For some students, it might be wiser to teach time passage without the additional complication of analog clocks!).</p><p>Before students start working with complicated time passage problems, have them work with time passage problems that deal with hour-long increments. (There are worksheets with hour-long, and hours-long passages below.) Those exercises will give them practice counting up and down hours (and counting over the 12s). Once students master that, they can start working on time passage problems that include minutes. </p><p>When working with time passage, students need to be able to think in base-12 and base-60 number systems, which can be very confusing to children. When students first start working on time passage, they tend to set problems up like a regular addition or subtraction problems, and then regroup like a regular math problem. But, our regrouping processes are based in a base-10 system, so they do not work for time (base-12 hours or base-60 minutes or seconds)! The best way to teach time passage is to have students deal with minutes and hours separately and then combine them to create a form of time that makes sense (just like when adding mixed numbers, you add the fractions and the whole numbers separately, then you combine the two).</p><p>Here's an example of how students often try to figure out how much time has passed and how they should do it. </p><p>Example:</p><p><strong>If your class begins at 8:15am and ends at 1:35 pm, how much time did you spend in class?</strong></p><p>Students' first instinct is often to do a subtraction problem: $$\eqalign{1\text{:}35\\\underline{-8\text{:}15}}$$</p><p>As you can see, that process will fail in several ways. Try this instead:</p><p>First get to whole hours. </p><p>The class started at 8:15, so it was <strong>45 minutes</strong> until 9:00 am.</p><p>The class ended at 1:35, so it lasted <strong>35 minutes</strong> after 1:00 pm.</p><p><strong>45 minutes + 35 minutes = 80 minutes</strong></p><p>Now find the time passage between the hours:</p><p>How many hours are there from <strong>9:00 am to 1:00 pm? 10, 11, 12, 1 = 4 hours.</strong></p><p>Add the hours and minutes together: <strong>4 hours and 80 minutes</strong>.</p><p>If there are any hour wholes (60 minutes) in the minutes, put them in the hours: 4 hrs + 80 min = 4 hrs + (1 hr + 20 min)=<strong> 5 hours and 20 minutes</strong></p><p>Figuring out time passage takes some time and practice. But, it is one of those math skills that students will probably use in real life, so it's worth getting right. For what it's worth, many students use their fingers when they count hours (especially when they count over a 12) and that's ok. Encourage them to do whatever works for them.</p></div></div>
<span><span>edboost</span></span>
<span><time datetime="2024-05-31T09:08:23-07:00" title="Friday, May 31, 2024 - 09:08">Fri, 05/31/2024 - 09:08</time>
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<h4><i class="icon-bookmark"></i> Skill:</h4>
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<li><a href="https://edboost.org/index.php/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Time</a></li>
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Fri, 31 May 2024 16:08:23 +0000edboost489 at https://edboost.orgTelling Time
https://edboost.org/index.php/node/488
<span>Telling Time</span>
<div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field-item"><div class="tex2jax_process"><p>Telling time is one of the most difficult things to teach children! Approach the process step by step and with patience!</p><p>Start by making sure the student understands time. The first step in learning to tell time is understanding how time works generally. For instance:</p><ul><li>At what time of day do you wake up?</li><li>At what time of day do you eat dinner?</li><li>At what time of day do you come home from school?</li></ul><p>As a first step, students should be able to tell you what time of day (morning, afternoon, evening, night) that they do specific activities. Students are not ready to learn about how read clocks and talk about specific times until they understand, generally, that there are different times of day (that happen every day in the same pattern). (There is a worksheet that helps students practice general time of day below).</p><p>Once student understand the general patterns of a day, they are ready to start to talk about hours. Most children learn about hours in the course of their daily lives (as opposed to in a tutoring session). If you are working on time with a student and have a student who does not have good "time sense" make sure to talk to parents. Ask parents to:</p><ul><li>Talk to students about what time things are happening (What's bed time? What time is it when they leave for school? What time is it when dinner hits the table?).</li><li>Make sure that there is a digital clock somewhere so that the kids can see what time it is.</li><li>Ask children, regularly, what time is it? Have them look at the clock!</li></ul><p>How can you tell if a child has time sense? Students who have a notion of time can tell you approximately what time they do regular things:</p><ul><li>Get up on a school day.</li><li>Leave for school.</li><li>Go to recess or lunch.</li><li>Come home from school.</li><li>Eat dinner.</li><li>Go to bed.</li></ul><p>If a student can give you general realistic times for these events, then the child has some time sense. If a child can't, you (and the parents) need to work on building time sense. A child should have decent time sense before you start trying to teach time passage or reading an analog clock. (There is a worksheet to help students practice time of day below.)</p><p>Once a child starts to have time sense, you want to start talking about the "chunks" in which we talk about time (this is complicated because neither hours nor minutes are in base 10 -- so a child needs to think about a whole new way to make "wholes"). </p><ol><li><strong>Talk about hours.</strong> On a digital clock display, show the hours. Write out several times: 12:10, 1:30, 4:50, and have the student point out which part is the hour. Try to have the student, based on hours, match approximate times to activities (so that the student can match hours and time of day). Although it's a lot to ask a student to be able to read an analog clock at this point, it can be helpful to look at an analog clock, or a model of one, while talking about time so that students can see that each number on the clock represents an hour. There are worksheets below about telling time to the hour on an analog clock. </li><li><strong>Talking about hours will lead to talking about noon, midnight, am, and pm.</strong> Explain that there are 24 hours in a day and that the 12 hours on a clock start over at noon and midnight (this is when it's helpful to have an analog clock at hand when you teach time. It's hard to learn to read an analog clock, but it does make it easier to understand why everything starts over again at 12!</li><li><strong>Start talking about half hours.</strong> Talk to the student about how there are 60 minutes in an hour and 30 minutes in a half hour. If looking at an analog clock, talk about how the minute hand moves around the clock once an hour, so when it's halfway through (pointing straight down, at the 6) it's a half hour. There are worksheets about telling time to the half hour below. Note: when you start talking about analog clocks, talk about how the hour and minute hand move independently, but constantly. So, on the hour, the hour hand points exactly at the hour number. But, as time continues, and the minute hand makes its way around the clock, the hour hand slowly moves towards the next number, so at 6:30, the hour hand will be pointing between the 6 and the 7.</li><li><strong>The next step is talking about quarter hours.</strong> It's helpful to talk about how there are 4 15-minute quarters in an hour. Show the student where 15, 30 (they should know!), and 45 are on the analog clock. Try to use various ways of talking about time, so 6:15 is "six-fifteen" and "quarter past 6."</li><li><strong>Finally, talk explicitly about how each number on an analog clock represents 5 minutes</strong> (60 minutes divided by 12 is 5 minutes). So, they can count by 5s around the clock to figure out exactly minutes. There are worksheets for telling time in 5 minute increments and 1 minute increments. There are also worksheets that focus on the later minutes in the hour (like 6:55 when the hour hand is closer to the next hour (7) than the correct hour (6) because these times tend to be hard for children. </li></ol><p>Many children cannot read an analog clock. Ideally every student should be able to read an analog clock. Even if you do not succeed in fully teaching a student to read an analog clock, working with analog clocks as you teach time will both give the student a foundation for learning to read an analog clock and give the a basis for understanding how time works (base-12 and base-60).</p><p>Click on the lesson about Time Passage when your students start to master the concepts of time and have some familiarity with analog clocks.</p></div></div>
<span><span>edboost</span></span>
<span><time datetime="2024-05-31T09:07:37-07:00" title="Friday, May 31, 2024 - 09:07">Fri, 05/31/2024 - 09:07</time>
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<h4><i class="icon-bookmark"></i> Skill:</h4>
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<li><a href="https://edboost.org/index.php/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Time</a></li>
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Fri, 31 May 2024 16:07:37 +0000edboost488 at https://edboost.orgMonths
https://edboost.org/index.php/node/487
<span>Months</span>
<div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field-item"><div class="tex2jax_process"><p>Another aspect of time that young students need to master is the calendar. They should know the names of the months and what order the months go in.</p><p>One great way to start talking about months is to use a huge calendar and have the students, as a group, try to fill in special days throughout the year. When is Christmas? When does summer start? When is 4th of July? When are their birthdays? If students do not know their birthdays, have each of them find out their birthday so that they can come back and add it to the calendar. Each day, talk about a different month and what is special about it. </p><p>Songs about the months of the year often help students remember the order of the months. </p></div></div>
<span><span>edboost</span></span>
<span><time datetime="2024-05-31T09:06:57-07:00" title="Friday, May 31, 2024 - 09:06">Fri, 05/31/2024 - 09:06</time>
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<div class="node-taxonomy-container field--name-field-skill field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline">
<h4><i class="icon-bookmark"></i> Skill:</h4>
<ul class="taxonomy-terms">
<li><a href="https://edboost.org/index.php/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Time</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
Fri, 31 May 2024 16:06:57 +0000edboost487 at https://edboost.orgTime Estimation
https://edboost.org/index.php/node/486
<span>Time Estimation</span>
<div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field-item"><div class="tex2jax_process"><p>Before students can learn to tell time or calculate time passage, they need to have some notion of what time is and how it works.</p><p>One of the best ways to help students to develop a sense of time is to have them think about their own lives and orient their activities to time.</p><p>Some students will know what time they get up, what time they go to bed, what time school starts, etc. For those students, mapping on additional life activities is fairly easy. If I wake up at 7 and go to school at 8, then I must eat breakfast at 7:30. But some students have no notion of time. They know that they get up and go to school but they have no idea when. For those students, you need to help them think about the clock and time, and how the day moves through the same times, and similar activities every day. Have those students talk with their parents to find their own benchmark times. </p><p>The worksheets below help students orient their activities in the most general way (at what time of day do you wake up? Morning, afternoon, or night?) and in more specific ways (at about what time do you eat dinner?). With practice, students can learn to think about time, but it's helpful if you start generally and get them to work with their families on a regular basis as they go about their daily tasks. </p></div></div>
<span><span>edboost</span></span>
<span><time datetime="2024-05-31T09:06:25-07:00" title="Friday, May 31, 2024 - 09:06">Fri, 05/31/2024 - 09:06</time>
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<div class="node-taxonomy-container field--name-field-skill field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline">
<h4><i class="icon-bookmark"></i> Skill:</h4>
<ul class="taxonomy-terms">
<li><a href="https://edboost.org/index.php/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Time</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
Fri, 31 May 2024 16:06:25 +0000edboost486 at https://edboost.orgDays of the Week
https://edboost.org/index.php/node/485
<span>Days of the Week</span>
<div class="field field--name-body field--type-text-with-summary field--label-hidden field-item"><div class="tex2jax_process"><p>Understanding time, learning to calculate the passage of time, and being able to estimate time are all critical life and math skills.</p><p>Related to that work is understanding the days of the week:</p><ul><li>How many days are in a week?</li><li>What are the days of the week?</li><li>Which days are school days?</li><li>Which days are weekend days?</li></ul><p>Because spelling can be so challenging when it comes to days of the week, it's helpful to have practice that requires students to write out the days and practice that does not. </p></div></div>
<span><span>edboost</span></span>
<span><time datetime="2024-05-31T09:05:53-07:00" title="Friday, May 31, 2024 - 09:05">Fri, 05/31/2024 - 09:05</time>
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<div class="node-taxonomy-container field--name-field-skill field--type-entity-reference field--label-inline">
<h4><i class="icon-bookmark"></i> Skill:</h4>
<ul class="taxonomy-terms">
<li><a href="https://edboost.org/index.php/taxonomy/term/28" hreflang="en">Time</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
Fri, 31 May 2024 16:05:53 +0000edboost485 at https://edboost.org